ZHANG W&ZHOU J et al. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev.2018,82(1):e00040-17
Regulation of Sensing, Transportation, and Catabolism of Nitrogen Sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Nitrogen is one of the most important essential nutrient sources for biogenic activities. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism in microorganisms is complicated and elaborate. For this review, the yeast
was chosen to demonstrate the regulatory mechanism of nitrogen metabolism because of its relative clear genetic background. Current opinions on the regulation processes of nitrogen metabolism in , including nitrogen sensing, transport, and catabolism, are systematically reviewed. Two major upstream signaling pathways, the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 sensor system and the target of rapamycin pathway, which are responsible for sensing extracellular and intracellular nitrogen, respectively, are discussed. The ubiquitination of nitrogen transporters, which is the most general and efficient means for controlling nitrogen transport, is also summarized. The following metabolic step, nitrogen catabolism, is demonstrated at two levels: the transcriptional regulation process related to GATA transcriptional factors and the translational regulation process related to the general amino acid control pathway. The interplay between nitrogen regulation and carbon regulation is also discussed. As a model system, understanding the meticulous process by which nitrogen metabolism is regulated in not only could facilitate research on global regulation mechanisms and yeast metabolic engineering but also could provide important insights and inspiration for future studies of other common microorganisms and higher eukaryotic cells.